According for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
About two out of three adults are willing to take civic action to support local street-scale urban design policy changes that make walking and biking easier in their neighborhoods, according to a new CDC study published in the January 2011 issue of the Journal of Physical Activity and Health. The article is based on a data analysis of 4,682 adults participants in the 2006 HealthStyles survey.
“Street-scale design” refers to physical changes such as ensuring sidewalk continuity, improving street lighting, introducing or enhancing traffic calming elements (eg., center islands, raised crosswalks), and improving the safety and landscaping aesthetics of the street area. Generally these kinds of changes are applied to small geographic areas, usually limited to a few blocks.
The authors note that street-scale design is important because it targets populations rather than individuals. Street-scale design changes were recommended by the Task Force on Community and Preventive Services based on studies that showed physical activity increased by an average of 35% following such changes in neighborhoods.